Secondary TraumatizationMental health care professionals specializing in the treatment of trauma hear tales of extreme human suffering and observe the emotions of fear, helplessness and horror registered by survivors on a consistent basis. Recent research demonstrates that these occupational duties may cause psychological symptoms in the practitioner who bears witness to the survivors' account of trauma.
Primary posttraumatic stress disorder may be diagnosed in an individual who experienced, witnessed or was confronted with a traumatic event and responded with intense fear, helplessness or horror. Intentional traumas (e.g., combat, sexual assault, terrorism and mass violence), as well as unintentional traumas (e.g., natural disasters, accidents), may cause this pervasive psychiatric condition.
Secondary trauma is defined as indirect exposure to trauma through a firsthand account or narrative of a traumatic event. The vivid recounting of trauma by the survivor and the clinician's subsequent cognitive or emotional representation of that event may result in a set of symptoms and reactions that parallel PTSD (e.g., re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal). Secondary traumatization is also referred to as compassion fatigue (Figley, 1995) and vicarious traumatization (Pearlman and Saakvitne, 1995).
Secondary trauma is an understudied and controversial clinical phenomenon.
- See more at: http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/ptsd/secondary-traumatization-mental-health-care-providers#sthash.8DzM8Jjh.dpuf
SECONDARY PTSDThis information was adapted from this site.
Secondary PTSD is not a disorder which is recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (as of the fourth edition). However, if you lived with someone who suffers from PTSD, you may notice yourself beginning to "mirror" some of their behaviors. This transformation is called Secondary Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
The Many Faces of Secondary PTSD
The signs, symptoms, and effects of Secondary PTSD are just as varied as the ones exhibited by those with "primary" PTSD. Basically, when you're living with someone who has Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, you
become his (or her) caretaker. You slip into a role, without even noticing it, that has you constantly watching for people or circumstances that might "set him off." You're trying to make sure everything stays in line - that nothing aggravates or upsets him or her - that everything is "perfect." On a much too frequent basis, and despite your best efforts, you find you're still getting screamed at and berated by the person you're trying to help.
The person with PTSD is not emotionally "there" for you. When you're upset or happy, angry or sad, you have to deal with your emotions on your own. You begin to feel ignored and unloved and start "protecting" yourself by treating others - especially the person with PTSD - the same way.
You're also probably handling all household chores, childcare, financial management, etc. You probably get no help (or very little) from your spouse or children. You're the cook, chauffeur, secretary, accountant, yard guy, child care provider, laundry service, etc., etc., etc. Everything in your family feels like it's up to you. It is a 24x7 job at which you constantly fail. It's not humanly possible to do everything - or to prevent PTSD from creeping in.
This cycle takes its toll on many spouses. You lose yourself. It's impossible to tiptoe around the person with PTSD, day in and day out, while taking care of all of life's other duties, without feeling the strain. And that strain soon transforms into... ta da... Secondary PTSD.
Secondary PTSD may make you feel overly angry, depressed, exhausted (but, alas, unable to sleep), overwhelmed, and just plain unhappy with the world around you. I can honestly say there have been times when I found the idea of folding a load of laundry absolutely impossible. I felt like I could not do anything right. I cried a lot and was really, REALLY pissed at the world.
- See more at: http://www.familyofavet.com/secondary_ptsd.html#sthash.9xhee81O.dpuf
CAREGIVER FATIGUE/ COMPASSION FATIGUEThe demands of caregiving can be overwhelming, especially if you feel you have little control over the situation or you’re in over your head. If the stress of caregiving is left unchecked, it can take a toll on your health, relationships, and state of mind—eventually leading to burnout.
When you’re burned out, it’s tough to do anything, let alone look after someone else. That’s why taking care of yourself isn’t a luxury—it’s a necessity.
Caregiver stress and burnout: What you need to know
Caring for a loved one can be very rewarding, but it also involves many stressors. Caregiver stress can be particularly damaging, since it is typically a chronic, long-term challenge. You may face years or even decades of caregiving responsibilities. It can be particularly disheartening when there’s no hope that your family member will get better.
If you don’t get the physical and emotional support your need, the stress of caregiving leaves you vulnerable to a wide range of problems, including depression, anxiety, and burnout. And when you get to that point, both you and the person you’re caring for suffer. That’s why managing the stress levels in your life is just as important as making sure your family member gets to his doctor’s appointment or takes her medication on time.
Common signs and symptoms of caregiver stress
- Anxiety, depression, irritability
- Feeling tired and run down
- Difficulty sleeping
- Overreacting to minor nuisances
- New or worsening health problems
- Trouble concentrating
- Feeling increasingly resentful
- Drinking, smoking, or eating more
- Neglecting responsibilities
- Cutting back on leisure activities
Common signs and symptoms of caregiver burnout
- You have much less energy than you once had
- It seems like you catch every cold or flu that’s going around
- You’re constantly exhausted, even after sleeping or taking a break
- You neglect your own needs, either because you’re too busy or you don’t care anymore
- Your life revolves around caregiving, but it gives you little satisfaction
- You have trouble relaxing, even when help is available
- You’re increasingly impatient and irritable with the person you’re caring for
- You feel helpless and hopeless
SO WHAT DO YOU DO ABOUT IT?Obviously it's different for everyone.
Medication, therapy - EMDR ( Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), respite, finding my love language, and support groups helped me a lot.
I also have a couple of posts that might help:
Finding the Joy which is about finding ways to recover your positive attitude, and
Caring for the Caregiver which is essential to filling your bucket, because you can't pour from an empty cup.